I completely advocate for the inclusion of the environmental appendix to the Dietary Guidelines.
I have concerns that lobbying against the inclusion of this from certain groups is based on the impact this may have on their profits rather that in the interests of health, e.g. meat and livestock industry, dairy industry.
Relevant evidence to support the inclusion includes:
Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1999. National Nutrition Survey: Foods Eaten: Australia 1995. Commonwealth of Australia.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2009. Australian Social Trends, Sep 2009. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/
abs@.nsf/Lookup/4102.0Main+Features20Sep+2009 January 21st 2010.
Booth, M.L., Chey, T., Wake, M., Norton, K., Hesketh, K., Dollman, J., and Robertson, I. 2003. Change in the prevalence of
overweight and obesity among young Australians. Am J Clin Nutr, 77: 1969–97.
Commonwealth of Australia. 1998. The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating: Background Information for Nutrition Educators.
Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/FD699468D5...
$File/fdeduc.pdf on April 10th 2010.
McMichael, A.J., Powles, J.W., Butler, C., and Uauy, R. 2007. Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health.
Energy and Health 5. Lancet 370: 1253–1263.
Pollan, M. 2008. In Defence of Food: An Eater’s Manifesto. Penguin Press. New York. USA.
Rangan, A.N., Randall, D., Hector, D.J., Gill, T.P., and Webb, K.L. 2008. Consumption of ‘extra’ foods by Australian children:
types, quantities and contribution to energy and nutrient intakes. Eur J Clin Nutr, 62(3): 356–355.
Swinburn, B., Gill, T., and Kumanyika, S. 2005. Obesity prevention: a proposed framework for translating evidence into action.
Obesity reviews 6: 23–33.
Sanigorski, A.M., Bell, A.C., and Swinburn, B.A. 2005. Association of key foods and beverages with obesity in Australian
schoolchildren. Public Health Nutrition 10(2): 152–157.
Vaska, V., and Volkmer, R. 2004. Increasing prevalence of obesity in South Australian 4-year-olds: 1995–2002.
J Paediatr Child Health 40: 353–355.
Food Standards Australia New Zealand. 2006. Country of Origin Labelling of Food, 1st Ed, Food Standards Australia New
Gaballa, S., and Abraham, A.B. 2008. Food miles in Australia: a preliminary study of Melbourne, Victoria. Retrieved from
http://sustainability.ceres.org.au/pdfs/sei/CERES_Food_Miles.pdf on June 20th 2008.
Russell, G., and Ferrie, S. 2008. Health and environmental implications of the CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet. Nutrition and
Dietetics, 65: 139–143.
Stacey, C. 2008. Food Miles. Retrieved from www.bbc.co.uk/food/food_matters/foodmiles.shtml on February 18th 2010.
Sustain. 2007. Eat well and save the planet: a guide for consumers on how to eat greener, healthier and more ethical food.
Retrieved from http://www.sustainweb.org/pdf/SFG_Consumers.pdf on February 18th 2010.
Sydney Food Fairness Alliance. 2007. Understanding food miles. Retrieved from http://sydneyfoodfairness.org.au/wp-content/
uploads/2009/07/SFFA_food_miles_v1_oct06www.pdf on February 6th 2010.
Woodhouse, J. 2007. Food miles and food exporting. Retrieved from www.foodprocessing.com.au/articles/1513-Food-milesand-
food-exporting on February 18th 2010.
Leitzmann, C. 2005. Wholesome nutrition: a suitable diet for the new nutrition science project, Public Health Nutrition, 8(6A):
American Dietetic Association. 2003. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103 (6): 748–765.
$File/fdeduc.pdf on April 4th 2010.
Australian Greenhouse Office. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory 2005. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 2007.
Retrieved from http://www.climatechange.gov.au/inventory/2005/pubs/inventory2005.pdf on January 2nd 2009.
Bryan, B., and Marvanek, S. 2004. Quantifying and valuing land use change for Integrated Catchment Management evaluation
in the Murray-Darling Basin 1996/97–2000/01. Stage 2 Report to the Murray-Darling Basin Commission. Urrabrae, South
Australia: CSIOR Land and Water. Retrieved from http://www.clw.csiro.au/publications/consultancy/2004/MDBC_stage2_
report.pdf on January 2nd 2009.
Frey, S., and Barrett, J. 2007. Our Health, our environment: The ecological footprint of what we eat. Stockholm Environment
Institute. International Ecological Footprint Conference, Cardiff, 8–10 May 2007. Retrieved from http://www.brass.cf.ac.uk/
uploads/Frey_A33.pdf on February 18th 2010.
Food and Agriculture Organisation. 2006. Livestock’s long shadow: environmental issues and options. Retrieved from
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a0701e/a0701e00.pdf on February 18th 2010.
Food and Agriculture Organisation. 2007. Food Outlook. Global Market Analysis. Meat and Meat Products. Retrieved from
http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ah864e/ah864e09.htm on February 10th 2010.
FSANZ (Food Standards Australia & New Zealand). AUSNUT 2007. Retrieved from http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/
consumerinformation/ausnut2007/ on February 10th 2010.
Foran, B., and Poldy, F. 2002. Future Dilemmas: Options to 2050 for Australia’s population, technology, resources and
environment, Chapter 3. The Urban Environment, CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra.
Frapple, P., O’Malley, P., Snowden, J., and Hagan, R. 1997. Emu Processing and Product Development. Report for the Rural
Industries Research and Development Corporation. Barton: Rural Industries Research & Development Corporation.
Goodland, R. 1997. Environmental sustainability in agriculture: diet matters. Ecological Economics 23: 189–200.
Joyce, A., Dixon, S., Comfort, J., and Hallett, J. 2008. The cow in the room: public knowledge of the links between dietary
choices and health and environmental impacts. Environmental Health Insights 1: 31–34.
Lea, E., Crawford, D., and Worsley, A. (2006) Public views of the benefits and barriers to the consumption of a plant-based
diet, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition., Vol. 60: 828–837.
Messina, M. 1999. Legumes and soybeans: overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects. Am J Clin Nutr 70 (suppl):
National Health and Medical Research Council. 2006. Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand including
Recommended Dietary Targets. Department of Health and Ageing: Australian Government. Retrieved from http://www.nhmrc.
gov.au/_files_nhmrc/file/publications/synopses/n35.pdf on January 13th, 2010.
Pimentel, D., and Pimentel, M. 2003. Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment. Am J Clin Nutr
78 (suppl): 660S–663S.
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Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78 (Supplement), 664S–668S.
Tedmanson, S. 2008. Australians say eating kangaroos will save the world. Times Retrieved from http://www.timesonline.co.uk/
tol/news/world/article4483757.ece on January 2nd 2009.
Vieira, S., Wood, R., and Galeano, D. 2007. Australian Fisheries Survey Report 2006: Results for Selected Fisheries, 2003–04
and 2004–05. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
Wright, A. 2004. Kangaroo meat – health secret revealed. CSRIO Livestock Industries. Retrieved from www.csiro.au/files/
mediaRelease/mr2004/kangaroofat.htm on July 28th 2008.
American Dietetic Association. 2007. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Food and Nutrition Professional Can
Implement Practices to Conserve Natural Resources and Support Ecological Sustainability. Journal of the American Dietetic
Association 107(6): 1033–1043
Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (2010). Organic and Bio-dynamic Products. Retrieved from http://www.daff.gov.
au/aqis/export/organic-bio-dynamic on February 9th 2010.)
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and economic analysis. Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, 9 (1): 5–30.
Garcia, M., and Altieri, M. 2005. Transgenic crops: Implications for biodiversity and sustainable agriculture. Bulletin of Science,
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organic and conventional farming systems. Bioscience 55 (7): 573–582.
Shepherd, M., Pearce, B., Cormack, B., Philipps, L., Cuttle, S., Bhogal, A., Costigan, P., and Unwin, R. 2003. An assessment of
the environmental impacts of organic farming. Retrieved from http://www.defra.gov.uk/foodfarm/growing/organic/policy/
research/pdf/env-impacts2.pdf on February 9th 2010.
Page reviewed: 4 February, 2013