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Review of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander research ethics guidelines submission

This submission reflects the views of
Organisation Name: 
Charles Darwin University
Personal Details
Specific Questions
Question 1: 
The scope of both these revised guidelines has been broadened considerably and could be interpreted to apply to the ethical conduct of research across the disciplines as these guidelines are not aimed specifically at researchers in the medical and health professions. However, the CDU ILRN OPVC-IL suggests making the following additions: The principle of cultural continuity could be enhanced by reference to negotiated Indigenous led research proposals that place Indigenous standpoint theories and methodologies at the centre as a way to 'protect cultures, languages and identities of Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander peoples and communities'. Further, in terms of the 'intrinsic values-based expectations and identity of Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander peoples and communities' the principle should encourage non-lndigenous researchers to undertake training in cultural competence. The principle of equity could be enhanced to include the recognition by non-lndigenous researchers of the intrinsic value Indigenous communities/individuals place on the equality of Indigenous standpoints in research and that Indigenous standpoints and Western approaches should be negotiated. In the spirit of the principle of reciprocity it should aim to achieve 'recognition, reputation and employment' for community members on a basis equitable to the researcher wherever possible. The first principle of respect in these revised guidelines could be enhanced by including that researchers also respect that Indigenous people have a right to decline to endorse a research proposal. The second principle of responsibility in relation to accountability of researcher's impact on 'the cultural and social dimensions of Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander life' should emphasise relationship building through embeddedness as a way to mitigate harm.
Question 2: 
Encouraging researchers to demonstrate 'evidence of endorsed agreements' negotiated between researchers and communities/individuals is a significant step toward enhancing the protection of intellectual copyright. As intellectual copyright derives from shared knowledge resulting from engagement and collaborations and/or consultations between researchers and Indigenous communities/individuals, any endorsed agreements should contain a statement of commitment by researchers to demonstrate how they will negotiate 'contractually transferred' intellectual copyright within a reasonable time frame before research findings are co-published with collaborators. The provision of capacity development plans is a concept with potential for extending opportunities arising from research beyond the planned length of time for individual projects. Ethically, such plans could contain agreements between institutions, communities, groups and/or individuals (MOU's) to extend training or employment on specific aspects of individual projects that benefit the communities'/individual's continuing involvement for knowledge building. Can this provision also include Indigenous communities/individuals choosing creative self-expression of intellectual copyright such as in song/dance/art/sculpture/video/written statement/story telling or preferred method in Indigenous standpoint and if so, it be made explicit in research proposals? The provision proposing facilitation of monitoring of ethical conduct is innovative for its potential as a role negotiated between researchers, communities, groups and/or individuals for the nomination of non-lndigenous and Elders or community representatives as a way to respond to unintended consequences and is worthy. The provision of requirement to translate research for participants whose first, second or third languages may not be English should be demonstrated by researchers to show respect for the equality of Indigenous first languages. The principle should extend to demonstrate the research will be co-authored in Indigenous first language if that is desired by participants. The endorsed agreement strategy should set out a combination of some of the principles similar to the suggested plan on page 11 of the Keeping Research on Track II document.
Question 3: 
3a) Should a case study about intellectual property be included? The CDU OPVC-IL-ILREN considers that ethical research practices would benefit from the inclusion of sound case studies that show researchers how intellectual property can be negotiated and why it is important according to the spirit and integrity of best practice. 3b) If a case study about intellectual property was included, what are some good examples of case studies in this area? Included in the CDU OPVC-IL-ILREN submission is an example of a high profile Australian case study that could be of use to the reviewers: - Janke, T. (2009). Writing up Indigenous Research: authorship, copyright and Indigenous knowledge systems. Terri Janke Sydney. 3c) What other topics would case studies be useful for? Other topics would be case studies of negotiated Indigenous standpoint/Western theoretical approaches to guide both Indigenous communities/individuals and researchers in methodologies that enhance equality of contribution to research. Key texts on current and emerging Indigenous standpoints/theories are: - Smith, L. T. 1999. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. University of Otago Press: Dunedin. - Rigney, L. 1999. The first perspective: Culturally safe research practices on or with Indigenous peoples. Chacmool conference paper, University of Calgary. - Norman K Denzin, Yvonna S Lincoln and Linda Tuhiwai Smith (eds). 2008. Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies. Sage: Los Angeles. 3d) What are some good examples of other case studies? Included in the CDU OPVC-IL-ILREN submission are links to advice about how to theorise negotiated Indigenous standpoint/Western approaches in best practice research. These can be found at: - http://www.cdu.edu.au/research/ori/exemplar-cdu-research-proiect - https://www.voutube.com/watch?v=XfW9 mXRPXc - https://www.voutube.com/watch?v=GOvLhVWtBIA - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GcGitmvaksY - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GFGTQCdRu5o - https://www.voutube.com/watch?v=MYS -iMgbSs - CDU ILRN OPVC-IL Comments Addressing Broader Provisions to the Review of Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Research Ethics Guidelines Consent Participants may verbally or indirectly decline an invitation to be involved in research. Some Indigenous people may be more comfortable indirectly declining through non-attendance or purposeful avoidance of researchers. Declining consent in either of these ways must be equally respected by the researchers. A case study of this can be found in: Chenhall, R., Senior, K., & Belton, S. (2011). Negotiating human research ethics: Case notes from anthropologists in the field. Anthropology Today, 27(5), 13-17. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.l467-8322.2011.00827.X All Researchers Explicit mention should be made of an expectation that all researchers engage with scholarship on the topics of Indigenous research methodologies, critical theories, cultural safety and colonisation is required before undertaking research with Indigenous people and communities. References providing some context to these expectations are: - Gray, M. A., & Oprescu, F. I. (2015). Role of non-lndigenous researchers in Indigenous health research in Australia: a review of the literature. Australian Health Review. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.ore/10.1071/AH15103 - Kwaymullina, A. (2016). Research, Ethics and Indigenous Peoples: An Australian Indigenous perspective on three threshold considerations for respectful engagement. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples, 12(4), 437-449. httDS://doi.ore/10.20507/AlterNative.2016.12.4.8 Explicit mention should be made that all researchers engage with scholarship on the topics of whiteness, colonisation and colonialism and acknowledge, respect and value Indigenous standpoint theories and methodologies. A key text in whiteness (and related colonialism) theory is: - Meredith J Green, Christopher C Sonn and Jabulane Matsebula. 2007. Reviewing whiteness: Theory, research and possibilities. South African Journal of Psychology 37( 3):389-419. A conference resource of use to the reviewers may be: - The National Indigenous Research and Knowledges Network (NIRAKN) conference: 'Race, Whiteness and Indigeneity', held in Surfers Paradise, June 2017. A list of the titles of conference papers can be provided on request. Return of Research Findings to the Community Mention should be made of the researcher's explicit obligation to return to communities, groups and/or individuals of origin and interpret the research results in a manner that is accessible, comprehensible and congruent.

Page reviewed: 2 August, 2018